3. Sleepers

- Are members generally laid transverse to the rails.
- The rails are fixed to transfer the loads from the rails to the ballast and the subgrade.


- Wooden Sleepers.
- Metal Sleepers.
- Concrete Sleepers.

4. Rails

- Are members of the track laid in two parallel lines.
- To provide on our continuous and land surface for the movement of trains.


- Provide a continuous and level surface.
- Provide a pathway which is smooth and less friction.
- Lateral guide for the wheels.
- Bear changes due to vertical loads etc.
- Transfer to formation through sleepers on wider area.


(a) According to position of sleepers
- Supported joints
- Suspended joints
- Bridge joints
(b) According to position of joints
- Square joints
- Staggered joints