The elements of the railway tracks are:

1. Formation
2. Ballast
3. Sleepers
4. Rails

1. Formation

- Lower most surface of track.
- Forms the foundation of track.


- Provides a smooth and uniform bed on which the track is laid.
- Bears the entire load transmitted from the moving loads to it through the ballast.
- Provides stability to the track.

2. Ballast

- Granular material usually broken stone and kanker, gravel and sand.
- Placed and packed around the sleeper to transmit load from sleeper to formation layer.
- Size = 20mm - 65mm


- To transfer and distribute the load form sleepers to a larger area of formation.
- To provide elasticity and resilience to track for getting proper riding comfort.
- To provide necessary resistance to track for longitudinal lateral stability
- To provide effective drainage to track.
- To provide effective means of maintaining evenness and alignment of tracks